Posts tagged asthma
Of all the things we experience in life, there are few more frustrating than a cough. At first, we hope it will last for just a couple of days before then disappearing. After several weeks, this is the time you should go to see a doctor because your body is telling you something. With coughs caused by viral infections or an upper respiratory infection should disappear within a week. Any cough that lasts longer than a week, a chronic cough, suggests an underlying health condition. Of course, this could be asthma, which is a common issue, but there’s another health problem we’re starting to learn more about as time goes on: sinusitis.
The Link Between Chronic Cough and Sinusitis
According to various ongoing studies and research, we now know that sinusitis is a bigger problem than we first thought. In fact, back in a 2005 Mayo Clinic study, at least 33% of all chronic cough sufferers were suffering from sinusitis (some form of inflammation of the sinuses). In the twelve years since then, this number has increased, but there are now solutions available.
If you’re wondering why this inflammation causes a cough, it comes from what we call ‘postnasal drip.’ Here, your sinuses will produce too much mucus to be of any use so some will drip backward into the throat and this triggers the cough reflex. In the medical world, this has a name of its own; upper airway cough syndrome (UACS). As a side effect of having sinusitis, this creates the link with your chronic cough, meaning you need to treat the sinusitis before anything else. If left untreated, the cough will keep returning time after time.
While on the topic, we should also discuss allergic rhinitis (inflammation concentrated in the nose). It’s caused by allergens such as mold, pollen, and dust mites. With millions of people suffering from allergies in the US, this is now a huge issue and it just so happens that postnasal drip is a symptom of the problem. As we know, this will soon lead to a chronic cough which persists until you receive treatment.
Generally speaking, patients with sinusitis and rhinitis-related coughs experience a worsening of the symptoms when the sun goes down. Since we go to bed and lie down to get some rest, this horizontal position can cause a disruption in the throat which makes sleeping somewhat difficult. Furthermore, we normally have something else to focus on throughout the day. When we’re trying to go to bed, we tend to concentrate on the things that are preventing us from resting, and this places all the emphasis on the cough.
As mentioned before, treating the cough alone in these situations is a little pointless because it won’t be long before postnasal drip brings it back again. Therefore, you need to consider tackling the cause of the issue which is the sinusitis.
If you’ve been experiencing the symptoms for more than 12 weeks, you’re now past the ‘acute’ phase and are progressing into the ‘chronic’ phase. At this stage, antibiotics aren’t likely to act fast enough, which is why some form of therapy may be required. Treatment options include including anti-inflammatory nasal sprays and the like. If the problem persists and starts to affect your life dramatically, you should see your doctor for a consultation for balloon sinuplasty.
How balloon sinuplasty works: after inserting a small camera into the nasal passage, a balloon is then sent up before being inflated. This inflation procedure works similarly to opening blocked arteries during heart surgery. Compared to more traditional options, this is less invasive and will only see you out-of-action for a couple of days.
From here, you can then treat the chronic cough (if it still exists) as you would a normal cough. Safe in the knowledge the postnasal drip has stopped, you can treat the cough without worrying about it returning anytime soon.
Ultimately, you know your body better than anybody else. Only you know when the cough is unusual in duration and severity. If you pay attention to the length of a cough, by marking it on the calendar, you’ll soon learn the right time to see a medical professional and find the underlying issue.
Have you had a dry cough nagging away at you for the past few weeks? At first, we attribute it to the flu or just a cough that will ‘go away soon’. As time goes on, we start to ignore it and actually grow accustomed to the cough but this is incredibly dangerous for a number of reasons. Today, we’re going to uncover these reasons and see what your cough could mean (and why you should seek medical attention).
What Is a Dry Cough?
In case you were unaware, a dry cough is any type of cough that produces no mucus or phlegm. Otherwise known as a ‘non-productive’ cough, they quickly become irritating and cause frustration. Often, they get worse at night as you lie down and this prevents a good nights’ sleep and leads to further issues – trouble concentrating at work, constant daytime fatigue, and even impacts on your personal and professional relationships.
Normal Duration of a Cough
With this in mind, how long does a “typical” cough actually last? According to most experts, a cold or flu-related cough should disappear within two weeks. Though some will be shorter and some may extend to three weeks, this is the average duration a cough lasts.
If the cough lasts for more than eight weeks, this is treated as a chronic cough and for children this lasts around four weeks. If you’ve had a dry cough that has lasted for more than eight weeks, now is the time to see the doctor – especially if it’s affecting work/school, sleep, personal life, or produces bloody phlegm.
When you first visit the doctor, they’ll look into your medical history before beginning a medical examination. In this testing phase, they may take an x-ray as well as a computerized tomography (CT) scan. With a CT scan, they’ll be able to see the condition of your lungs as well as any issues that would produce a cough or issues within the sinus cavities. After this, they could also go for lung function tests, scope tests, and lab tests.
Possible diagnoses could include the following, some of which produce a dry cough:
- Asthma – First and foremost, a cough relating to asthma may come as the seasons change or after an upper respiratory tract infection. With asthma, it means there is an issue within the lungs and this leads to regular coughs, difficulty breathing, and many other side-effects. If this is the cause, you may be given an inhaler to aid with your breathing, help your lungs, and clear up the cough.
- Postnasal Drip – As the nose produces excess amounts of mucus, it can actually drip down into the throat and trigger the cough reflex. Also known as upper airway cough syndrome (UACS), it can continue for some time without treatment.
- Infections – After a bad case of the flu or an infection in the upper respiratory tract, whooping cough can form which is a bacterial infection within the airways and lungs.
- Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) – With this issue, stomach acid can back up into the esophagus (which connects your throat and stomach). This can cause both a wet and dry cough, which causes GERD, causing further coughing, etc.
- Bronchitis – Finally, this inflammation within the bronchial tubes (airways) can cause dry coughing. Although most sufferers are or were heavy smokers, it can occur in anyone and it falls into the spectrum for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
- Other causes – Ultimately, these are the most common underlying problems for a dry cough but you could also be experiencing a side-effect from blood pressure drugs, cystic fibrosis, lung cancer, laryngopharyngeal reflux, and sarcoidosis.
Ultimately, the treatment required will depend entirely on the issue found. For example, antihistamines and decongestants are common for allergies and postnasal drip while antibiotics will be the best solution for infections. Furthermore, acid blockers would be advised for acid reflux although surgery is an option for the more severe cases.
Elsewhere, cough suppressants might be issued if the doctor cannot find the reason for the cough. If the cough is preventing you from sleeping and severely affecting your life, this solution should see you through until test results are returned and the doctor can work towards a proper treatment to get you back on your feet.
If you have a dry cough that doesn’t seem to be disappearing or if you’re coughing up blood, get in contact with your doctor today and you can have the problem treated rather than living with a potentially dangerous health condition.
Allergies are a major cause of stress and discomfort for millions of people around the world. In America alone, we have approximately 50 million people suffering from this disease. Various medicines and treatments exist to ease allergy symptoms; however, these methods are no cure. Scientists at the University of Queensland are looking into a possible life-long treatment for severe allergies. Find out if there’s hope for a cure.
How Allergies Work
An allergy is a response from your immune system, an indicator that you are hypersensitive to certain substances. These allergens vary from person to person. Some people are allergic to certain plants, foods, drugs, materials or bugs. Even dust in the air is a potential allergen for someone suffering from the disease. When the body comes into contact with any of these allergens, it overreacts, causing allergy sufferers to experience coughing, sneezing, itchy eyes, and more.
New Allergy Treatment
In a study using animal, Associate Professor Ray Steptoe at the UQ Diamantina Institute essentially ‘turned-off’ the immune response.
“Our work used an experimental asthma allergen, but this research could be applied to treat those who have severe allergies to peanuts, bee venom, shell fish and other substances,” says Professor Steptoe. “We take blood stem cells, insert a gene which regulates the allergen protein and we put that into the recipient. Those engineered cells produce new blood cells that express the protein and target specific immune cells, ‘turning off’ the allergic response.”
This research could mean significant progress towards curing allergy sufferers of their dilemma. Most current allergy treatments are effective but temporary. Patients have to keep taking these treatments and medications to relieve symptoms.
Professor Steptoe explains that “When someone has an allergy or asthma flare-up, the symptoms they experience results from immune cells reacting to protein in the allergen. The challenge in asthma and allergies is that these immune cells, known as T-cells, develop a form of immune ‘memory’ and become very resistant to treatments.”
The Next Step in Research
The gene therapy is still in its early stages. Now that the animal trails have proven successful, Professor Steptoe hopes to move onto the next step – human trials.
“We have now been able ‘wipe’ the memory of these T-cells in animals with gene therapy, de-sensitising the immune system so that it tolerates the protein,” says Professor Steptoe. “We haven’t quite got it to the point where it’s as simple as getting a flu jab, so we are working on making it simpler and safer so it could be used across a wide cross-section of affected individuals.”
Professor Steptoe is working from Australia, which has more than 2 million residents with allergies. By testing the gene therapy with human cells, scientists can discover if the treatment is effective in people. The researchers might also discover if the gene therapy negatively effects the immune system altogether. For now, more research needs to be done and hopefully, it can lead to a single treatment cure for people suffering from allergies.
If you have allergy symptoms, we suggest visiting an ENT doctor. They have experience helping patients find a way to live with allergy symptoms.
Dealing with allergies can be difficult, especially during childhood. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), about 10% of children (under the age of 18) have experienced respiratory allergies. It is difficult for kids, who are dealing with childhood allergies, to avoid anything that will trigger their symptoms. However, it is more important for parents to make sure they that their children are safe in places like school.
Are Childhood Allergies Safe at School?
Airborne allergens come in many forms, from pollen to dust mites. However, if you want your children to remain safe, it is important to know where they accumulate. This means making sure that schools are allergen-free. The problem is that some educational institutions contain airborne allergens. These allergens trigger the symptoms of children, putting them at risk.
Wanda Phipatanakul of Boston’s Children’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School conducted a recent study. She and other researchers sought to find out if airborne allergen affected kids in school. By examining 37 inner-city schools, they were able to detect if there were any common indoor allergens. Surprisingly, there are not many.
Researchers found that these schools contained a high level of mouse allergens. These were the biggest cause of severe asthma symptoms. Researchers also found a very low amount of other allergy triggers. This includes dust mites, cockroaches, and rats.
Schools seem to keep themselves clean. However, given the location of the study, it is understandable why mice are a problem. Inner-cities have high populations of mice. Their feces are a known allergy trigger. If they are not kept out of the schools, it can be bad for many kids. Parents expect their children to learn in a safe environment, free from any possible danger.
The authors had this to say about their findings: “Exposure Reduction strategies in the school may effectively and efficiently benefit all children with asthma. Future school-based environmental intervention studies may be warranted.”
Scientists from the University of Wisconsin’s School of Medicine and Public Health, in Madison, Wisconsin have released the results of a long-term study looking at possible connections between the symptoms of asthma and the development of Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) in adults. The study began in 1988, and the results were released in January of this year. From the beginning of the study, the team of researchers looked at over 500 randomly selected adults, ages 30 to 60 years old at the onset of the study, and followed them every four years until shortly before releasing their results. These results, they found, show that asthma is linked to sleep apnea risks being higher, especially as adults further age.
Of those chosen randomly for the study, 466 of them did not have adult asthma symptoms and 81 of them did. Each participant attended an in-laboratory overnight stay to study their sleep patterns, concluding with a questionnaire about their sleeping habits, daytime sleepiness, etc. roughly every four years. The rate of OSA in each grouping remained essentially constant within each four-year interval, as twenty-two of the eighty-one participants who suffered from asthma experienced incidents of Obstructive Sleep Apnea, which is twenty-seven percent of this group, while only seventy-five of the four hundred and sixty-six participants who did not suffer from asthma experienced incidents of Obstructive Sleep Apnea, which is roughly sixteen percent of the group. In the last four-year interval that the participants were studies, the rate of Obstructive Sleep Apnea incidents remained at twenty-seven percent for those with asthma, and only increased to seventeen percent for the group without asthma. The authors of this study wrote, “This study prospectively examined the relationship of asthma with OSA assessed with laboratory-based polysomnography and found that preexistent asthma was a risk factor for the development of clinically relevant OSA in adulthood over a 4-year period. Furthermore, the asthma-OSA association was significantly dose-dependent on duration of asthma.” These results showed the scientists that, indeed, asthma is linked to sleep apnea risks being higher than they normally would without asthma. They concluded, “Studies investigating the mechanisms underlying this association and the value of periodic OSA evaluation in patients with asthma are warranted,” adding that they would conduct further studies to find a direct causal relationship between asthma and the risks of Obstructive Sleep Apnea.
Surgery Could Improve Asthma Control: Sleep Apnea in Children and Young Adults
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA), is one of the most commonly experienced sleep disturbances in the world. This sleep disorder causes an obstruction in the airway during sleep (usually the tonsils and soft palate of the mouth). The passages close temporarily, creating a brief moment where the person stops breathing. These moments cause the person to slightly wake up, but only just enough to push enough air out to start the breathing process again. The sufferer usually never realizes they have awoken in this manner – yet they do it many times each night. The result is a person who is not getting solid rest and who fails to reach those stages of sleep that are needed for proper rest and rejuvenation. When this sleep disorder is diagnosed in children and younger adults, surgery is a possible route to stop the OSA from causing a lifetime of problems. However, this swelling of the back of the throat may also be related to asthma, another disorder that affects millions of Americans, including a large population of America’s children. The connection between breathing problems and their common source (blockage of the airway), leads to the question of whether there is a common solution to both disorders. This is a distinct possibility, as researchers studying the effects of sleep apnea surgery have concluded this surgery could improve asthma control in children and young adults.
The study took data from over 40,000 US citizens between the ages of three and seventeen. Of these children, about 13,500 had asthma and had undergone the surgery that removed their tonsils and adenoids (soft tissue at the back of the throat), as a treatment for OSA. The preliminary research concludes that the children averaged a 30 percent reduction in acute asthma triggers. Moreover, there was a nearly 40 percent decrease in the medical emergency of acute status asthmaticus (where the inability to breathe reaches the point of suffocating). It should be noted that the research is only preliminary. Thus, even though this surgery may possibly improve asthma control, more extensive studies are needed to understand the exact connection between the two disorders. This, in turn, may lead to singular or unified treatments.
Allergy and Asthma Attacks: Being Prepared For The Worst
Being caught off guard from an allergy attack that triggers asthma can create a feeling of helplessness and panic. While avoiding your own personal allergen triggers as much as possible is a good idea, they cannot always be avoided. Certain factors are always going to be out of your control. Yet, there are ways to be prepared for a combination of allergy and asthma attacks so, if it does happen, you can handle it quickly, calmly, and effectively.
The first thing you need, of course, is to make sure your medications are on hand. Knowing how to use your medications properly is vital but knowing when to use them is just as important. For example, you should know what to take for quick relief at the onset of an attack and what medicines should be used daily for prevention. Also, check the expiration dates, as expired medications may not be potent when you need them the most. From time to time you should check with your physician to make sure your dosages are correct. If you notice, for example, that it is taking a while for a fast-acting drug to take effect, you should inform your doctor. There could be several reasons the drug is not working the way it should work or the way it used to work for you. The medicine may be out of date, you may require a higher dose or it may be time for a completely different drug.
People who suffer from allergies should always be aware of their surroundings. Checking the local weather and air reports can help you to decide whether to stay indoors or to opt for a walk in the park. If the pollen counts are high it may be time to wear a mask when you have to go outdoors. Just like a forecast lets you decide whether to bring your umbrella, an air quality report can help you to be prepared for potential allergic reactions.
Should an attack suddenly occur, and it may, remember to remain calm. Panicking can make matters worse. If you have thought this out before hand, you will have a plan of action and your medications on hand. You will know that you will be alright and, with this knowledge, you know there is no need to panic. Remember to just breathe. Calming exercises, which you should practice during stress-free times at home, can help you control breathing and relax you when the attack hits.
It’s not possible to be ready for everything that life throws our way. However, we can be ready for sudden allergy and asthma attacks. Being prepared can go a long way to putting one’s mind at ease. Then you can handle an attack—even if it catches you at a time you least expect it.
There are millions of children with asthma in the United States. Unfortunately, a good number of these asthma cases are poorly monitored and treated. This lack of attention may not be intentional, but it can impair some important functions. One study looked into the effects of untreated asthma on sleep quality and school performance. While it is easy to see how one could affect the other, the results helped identify issues that were previously unclear.
The study also helped identify certain social factors that can potentially contribute to respiratory health. A recently concluded study followed 170 children aged 7 to 9, all from urban areas. Their symptoms were assessed and monitored. Parents and schools also aided researchers by providing information regarding changes and care in regard to the asthmatic condition each child had. In this way, quality of care could be determined. Certain patterns were noticed in those children who received less care for their asthma.
First of all, there was a decrease in sleep. As a result, those with less sleep found themselves tired at school. With difficulty staying awake, those children also found it hard to adequately complete schoolwork and other tasks, directly affecting schoolwork and performance. Researchers noticed that those who came from lower-income families were at greater risk as well. With high costs of medical care, a child’s asthma was less likely to be tended to. This social factor has moved the medical community to endeavor to educate parents and caregivers on the matter. When the family is involved and knows the facts, a child can be helped to suffer less, sleep better and perform better in class. Schools can help, too, by being able to identify those who do have asthma and need intervention. By working together it is hoped that children in urban areas with asthma can receive the care they need and get the most out of their education.