Nasal

Common causes of smell loss include allergies, injury to the nerve tissue from an upper respiratory infection, and rhinitis.

Smell Loss

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The two most common causes of a loss of smell are allergies or some kind of injury to the nerve tissue from a viral upper respiratory infection. Patients who lose their sense of smell as a result of a respiratory infection will generally be able to date the time of their smell loss to the same time as the respiratory infection they experienced. In general, these tend to be older patients, and the loss of smell that they have incurred is more typically partial than total in nature.

Unfortunately, there is no effective treatment for this situation because viral damage cannot normally be repaired. While it is possible that some patients will recover their sense of smell over time, these patients are definitely in the minority, and comprise less than 20% of the total number of patients experiencing smell loss. It is however, certainly possible that people who experience temporary smell loss after an upper respiratory infection recover it within a few days of being restored to normal health from the infection.

Common causes of smell loss include allergies, injury to the nerve tissue from an upper respiratory infection, and rhinitis.

Common causes of smell loss include allergies, injury to the nerve tissue from an upper respiratory infection, and rhinitis.

Smell Loss from Sinuses or Allergies

The other most common cause of smell loss is rhinitis, which is an inflammation that occurs in the nose, nasal polyps, or sinusitis. All three of these are considered to be ongoing processes, in that they recur during the lifetime of the patient, and as such, have an ongoing effect on the sense of smell.

Since this is the case, the development of smell loss tends to be a much more drawn-out process, as opposed to the upper respiratory infection cases, which are more spontaneous in nature. People who are troubled with smell loss due to allergies or sinus problems often report improvements in their sense of smell on a temporary basis, for instance after vigorous exercise, showering, or some other activity which elevates one’s heart rate.

It’s also possible for temporary smell improvements to be experienced when taking corticosteroids, antibiotics, or some other kinds of medication, but, in most cases, the improvement eventually subsides, and the loss of smell returns. It’s fairly common in such cases for there to be accompanying symptoms such as post-nasal drip, problems with breathing through the nose, or nasal allergies. Interestingly, the development of smell loss does not result in a loss of taste, or at least that has not been reported by any significant number of studied patients.

For people who have experienced both an upper respiratory infection and an ongoing process like sinusitis, it will usually be very difficult to pinpoint the time of your smell loss. There is a reason, though, that dating the time of smell loss can be important, because of the two types of smell loss, only sinusitis is treatable and reversible. As previously mentioned, viral damage to the nose cannot be repaired, and that means the sense of smell will also be unlikely to improve for the vast majority of patients.

Treatments for Smell Loss

When a doctor is able to determine whether a patient’s loss of smell was triggered by allergies, there are some treatments which may help recover and restore the sense of smell. Antihistamines, antibiotics, and corticosteroids have all proven to be at least somewhat effective in restoring the sense of smell, because they work to decrease inflammation in the nasal passageways, and these are the primary causes of smell loss in the first place.

For patients who have had some physical damage to the nose, such as a deviated septum or nasal polyps, surgery may also be an option to repair the problem. However, the correlation between surgery and successful restoration of the sense of smell is not strong, so for any specific situation, a patient should discuss surgical options with their doctor.

Patients who have suffered a loss of smell following some kind of severe trauma to the nose or an upper respiratory viral illness, have very few treatment options available to them currently. Corticosteroids are sometimes used to provide benefits for some patients, but the success rate is not particularly promising.

New research has shown that attempting to retrain a person’s sense of smell can achieve modest successes, since it attempts to stimulate the regenerative capabilities of the body’s olfactory network. Part of this therapy involves exposing a patient to familiar odors which are very strong and recognizable, so as to promote the recovery of a sense of smell. The theory behind this is that it helps to rewire that area of the brain which processes smells.

Currently, research is underway to explore other avenues for the restoration of the sense of smell in patients who were thought to have experienced total loss. While medical treatments have not been shown to be universally effective, some patients have experienced small gains in their sense of smell when using phentoxifylline, gabapentin, theophylline, various antidepressants, and some kinds of antibiotics. In the future, it is likely that other treatment approaches will be discovered, and that many more patients will be able to cover some sense of smell even after a traumatic upper respiratory viral infection.

Nasal fluid works to trap foreign substances and prevent them from reaching the interior respiratory system.

Nasal Fluid Normality

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The nasal fluid produced by your body is known as mucus, although it has many more colorful names which younger people are especially fond of using. Contrary to popular belief, nasal fluid is not an offensive fluid from the body, and is not something that should be thought of as poorly as it is. In truth, nasal fluiid is one of the body’s most important lines of defense, playing a critical role in the protection against infections and various types of irritants.

What Exactly is Mucus?

Everyone is aware that our noses are used to smell things, but that’s certainly not the only role they play in human health. Their role, which not many people actually consider, is as a protection against inbound irritants, and in this capacity, mucus is one of the most important agents involved in the protection process.

Most people recognize mucus as a runny, nasty-looking substance that often dribbles out of the nose, but in actuality, it’s a very complex substance that works hard to keep sinuses and the interior of the nose moist. There are components of mucus which determine its thickness, elasticity, and stickiness, all of which are important in its role as defender against incoming irritation. Most people produce between one pint and one quart of mucus each and every day.

Nasal fluid works to trap foreign substances and prevent them from reaching the interior respiratory system.

Nasal fluid works to trap foreign substances and prevent them from reaching the interior respiratory system.

What Mucus Does

The primary role of mucus is to trap incoming irritation such as animal dander, pollen, mold, smoke, and bacterial substances. By smoothing the lining of the nose and trapping all these types of foreign substances and debris, they are prevented from reaching the interior respiratory system where a great deal of damage could be done. The vast majority of mucus is simply swallowed, along with all the material that it may have trapped. Whatever those foreign substances were, they become neutralized in the gastrointestinal tract, and are then expelled from the body.

This is the more invisible component of mucus removal, and not the one people commonly associate with the process. The more visible process for mucus removal is blowing your nose into a handkerchief, and this of course removes all unwanted material without the need for having it processed in the interior of the body. However, as stated above, this occurs far less frequently than the swallowing process, where most unwanted debris is managed.

Normal Mucus Content

Most of the time, people don’t really think about mucus or what is contained in it, and this is perfectly normal, because it should be unnoticeable if everything in the body is as it should be. Healthy mucus is colorless and is typically quite watery and thin. In the absence of any disease or infections in the body, the cilia of the nose move very gently in tiny waves to move mucus, along with any trapped materials, toward the back of the throat.

These cilia have been compared to tiny brooms which sweep materials clear of nasal passages to keep the breathing process running smoothly. When sinuses are in a good state of health, they are typically empty, because these cilia are working constantly to remove mucus and trapped materials. The end result of this constant sweeping is that the mucus is ushered toward drainage openings into the nasal cavity, and from there it can either be expelled by blowing the nose, or it will simply be swallowed and processed in the gastrointestinal tract.

Indicators of Mucus Problems

There are several indicators which tell you there’s some kind of problem with mucus, often because it’s associated with an infection. Since mucus is normally clear, if you should observe that it becomes yellow, brown, green, gray, white, or even bloody, this could be a sign of a major infection from bacteria, virus, or fungus particles.

The reason for this color change is that the white blood cells in mucus produce enzymes to repel invaders when they encounter any kind of infectious organism. The enzymes produced by the mucus have a tendency to turn it green, and if that remains in place overnight, it can then change into several other colors as described above.

Another indicator of a problem with mucus is the amount that the body generates. Healthy people will generally have clear-colored mucus, and will not even notice any amounts that are produced by the body, since all the work is carried on in the background. Whenever you begin to cough up significant amounts of mucus, that is a likely indicator of an allergic reaction or some kind of infection.

The thickness of mucus is also a frequent indicator of ill health, because thick mucus can clog the throat and become noticeable as it impacts the voice. Thick mucus inhibits vocal cord movement, and the associated post-nasal drip may cause persistent coughing, as well as changes in taste or in smell.

There may also be a burning sensation in the throat because mucus is dripping down the throat, and since it’s naturally acidic, that can be an irritation to the lining of the throat. That’s why it’s very common for someone to wake up with a sore throat when there’s some kind of infection occurring in the body – mucus drainage, which has occurred during sleep hours, has caused noticeable irritation in the lining of the throat.

A women with a sudden nosebleed.

What Causes a Sudden Nosebleed?

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When an adult experiences a sudden nosebleed with no apparent cause, there could be many things that triggered it. While unexplained nosebleeds might seem serious, in most cases they aren’t.

If it turns out that there’s a specific medical condition that triggered the nosebleed, your physician will advise you on what steps to take next. If you regularly experience unexplained nosebleeds, you should notify your doctor, so that they can give you an accurate diagnosis of the causes of your nosebleeds. In this article, we will examine some of the most common causes of a sudden nosebleed, and how to treat and prevent this condition.

Quick Fix: Buy a Humidifier

Sometimes the cause of a sudden nosebleed can be something as simple as very dry air brought about by constant indoor heating. Dry air is a relatively common situation in cold weather when a heating system might be running for most of the day, with no humidifier at work to restore moisture.

Nosebleeds can also occur when someone is exposed to cold weather for a prolonged period. Both these scenarios cause the lining of the nose to dry out, crack and bleed. To prevent the indoor heating cause, you can make sure your home is adequately humidified, especially during the cold season when the heat is on. For someone who has to spend long hours outdoors, the best preventive measure is to use a nasal spray which artificially moistens the inner lining of the nose.

Underlying Medical Conditions

There are certain medical conditions which inhibit your body’s ability to form blood clots, and that can trigger nosebleeds at virtually any time. Kidney disease, liver disease, and persistent excess consumption of alcohol can all act to interfere with clotting and induce a sudden nosebleed.

This condition can also be caused by congestive heart failure, high blood pressure and hypertensive crisis, which is a sudden blood pressure escalation coupled with anxiety, breathing difficulty, and an intense headache. There are also some very common medical conditions which can contribute to the triggering of nosebleeds, such as colds and allergies, as well as just blowing your nose frequently. All these can severely irritate the nasal lining, and trigger spontaneous nosebleeds.

A young man with a tissue in his nose, from a sudden nosebleed.

Do you take blood thinning (anticoagulant) medications? If so, they might be the culprit behind your sudden nosebleed.

Blood Thinners and NSAIDs

Many medications which are used to treat pain can have the side effect of triggering nosebleeds. Included in this category are aspirin, anticoagulant medications, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS). Blood thinners like these inhibit the body’s ability to generate clots, and that means they can not only cause a nosebleed but can make it much harder to stop one that has started.

These kinds of medications are often prescribed for someone who has an irregular heartbeat, or someone who has had an actual heart attack. Since blood clots can cause a stroke or heart attack if they travel through the body and lodge near the brain or heart, people with heart conditions are often prescribed blood thinning medications which act to deter clotting.

Persistent Nose Scratching

The cause for a nosebleed can sometimes be a little more obvious, such as the case for someone who is constantly picking or scratching. This kind of activity can easily injure blood vessels in the nostrils, causing nosebleeds that seem to come out of nowhere. This kind of nosebleed is most common with small children.

What to Do With a Sudden Nosebleed

Most nosebleeds can be stopped or treated at home, without the need to seek medical treatment. If home treatment methods fail to get it under control, you should find medical attention, even though such situations are rarely life-threatening.

One technique for stopping a nosebleed is to sit down and lean forward, using direct pressure against the nostrils to pinch them closed for approximately 10 minutes. During that span, you’ll have to breathe through your mouth. It may also help to spray your nostrils with a nasal decongestant, because that constricts the blood vessels, and limits blood flow through the nose.

Once you have stopped the nosebleed, you can prevent it from recurring by using topical ointments and saline inside the nostrils. And of course, you should avoid any further irritation of the nose from scratching or nose-picking.

Especially for patients who take blood thinners, medical attention is their best option. These anticoagulants will decrease the body’s ability to clot and stop the nosebleed, and talking to your doctor will help them modify the dosage of any blood-thinning medication you might be taking or change it altogether.

If you have more than one nosebleed in the same week, that’s a definite sign that you should talk to your doctor. In most cases, sudden unexplained nosebleeds are not serious medical conditions, but when they happen more frequently in a short timeframe, they can be warning signs of more concerning health conditions.

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